Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains one of the most challenging hematological malignancies. Despite progress in therapeutics, majority of patients succumb to this neoplasm. CD33 is a proven therapeutic target, given its expression on most AML cells. Almost all anti-CD33 antibodies target the membrane distal immunoglobulin V (IgV) domain of the CD33 extracellular domain.
Methods: In this manuscript, we present data on three bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) against the CD33 IgV and membrane proximal immunoglobulin C (IgC) domains. We use in vitro binding and cytotoxicity assays to show the effect of these BsAbs on AML cell lines. We also use immunodeficient mice-bearing leukemias from cell lines and patient-derived xenografts to show the effect of these BsAbs in vivo.
Results: In vitro, the IgV-targeting BsAb had higher binding to AML cell lines using flow cytometry and delivered more potent cytotoxicity in T-cell-dependent cytotoxicity assays; importantly, the IgC domain-targeting outperformed the IgV domain-targeting BsAb in medullary and extramedullary leukemia animal models.
Conclusions: These data support further clinical development of this BsAb for first-in-human phase I clinical trial.
Keywords: antibodies; antigens; immunotherapy; neoplasm.
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