Correlates of Engagement in HIV Care Among Transgender Women of Color in the United States of America

AIDS Behav. 2021 Jul;25(Suppl 1):3-12. doi: 10.1007/s10461-021-03306-9. Epub 2021 May 26.


HIV prevalence among transgender women of color (TWC) in the United States of America is high. We enrolled TWC living with HIV (N = 858) to evaluate 1nine HIV care interventions. We examined factors associated with four outcomes at enrollment: linkage to care, ever being on antiretroviral treatment, retention in care and viral suppression. The sample was 49% Hispanic/Latino, 42% Black; average age was 37 years; 77% were ever linked to care, 36% were ever on treatment, 22% were retained in care, and 36% were virally suppressed. Current hormone use was significantly associated with linkage, retention, and viral suppression (all aORs > 1.5), providing evidence for gender-affirming care as an important facilitator of engagement in HIV care. Greater health care empowerment was significantly associated with greater odds of all outcomes (aORs between 1.19 and 1.37). These findings identify potential intervention targets to improve the provision of care and treatment for TWC living with HIV.

Keywords: Engagement in care; HIV; HIV care continuum; HIV treatment; Transgender women.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Continuity of Patient Care
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Skin Pigmentation
  • Transgender Persons*
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents