Background and aims: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high atherosclerosis risk. The impact of different dietary patterns on atherosclerosis biomarkers has been poorly studied in FH. This study verified the association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with biomarkers of dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation in molecularly proven FH adults from Brazil (BR) and Spain (SP).
Methods and results: In this cross-sectional study adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by a validated score and generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate its association with plasma LDL-C, apolipoprotein-B (ApoB) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations. We included 92 (mean age 45 years, 58.7% females) and 98 FH individuals (mean age 46.8 years, 60.2% females) respectively from BR and SP. FH causing variants did not differ between countries. LDL-C, ApoB and hs-CRP concentrations were higher in BR than in SP: 179 (135-250) and 161 (133-193) mg/dL; 141 (109-181) and 103 (88-134) mg/dL; and 1.6 (0.8-4.0) and 0.8 (0.4-1.5) mg/L respectively (all p < 0.001). Most of BR had low adherence (n = 77, 83.7%), while the majority of SP were divided into moderate (n = 35, 35.7%) and strong adherence to the Mediterranean diet (n = 37, 37.8%), p < 0.001. There was a significant inverse association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet score with higher LDL-C, ApoB, and hs-CRP after adjusting for socio economic parameters, caloric and fatty acid intakes as well as pharmacological lipid lowering therapies.
Conclusions: Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with better dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation profiles in FH.
Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Cholesterol; Familial hypercholesterolemia; Hyperliproteinemia type II; Inflammation; Mediterranean diet.
Copyright © 2021 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.