Managing Recurrent Pseudomyxoma Peritonei in 430 Patients After Complete Cytoreduction and HIPEC: A Dilemma for Patients and Surgeons

Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Nov;28(12):7809-7820. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-10093-z. Epub 2021 May 26.


Background: Epithelial appendiceal neoplasms are uncommon peritoneal malignancies causing a spectrum of disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). The optimal management is cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Despite complete CRS (CCRS), recurrence develops in almost 45% of patients. No consensus exists for the optimal treatment of recurrent disease, with treatment strategies including repeat CRS, watch-and-wait, and palliative chemotherapy. This report aims to describe evolving management strategies for a large cohort with recurrence after CCRS.

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed a prospective database of patients with recurrence after CCRS for appendiceal neoplasms from 1994 to 2017 who had long-term follow-up evaluation with tumor markers and computed tomography (CT).

Results: Overall, 430 (37.6%) of 1145 PMP patients experienced recurrence at a median of 19 months. Of these 430 patients 145 (33.7%) underwent repeat CRS, 119 (27.7%) had a watch-and-wait approach, and 119 (27.7%) had palliative chemotherapy. The patients with recurrence had a median overall survival (OS) of 39 months, a 3-year survival of 74.6%, a 5-year survival of 57.4%, and a 10-year survival of 36.5%. In the multivariate analysis, the patients who had recurrence within 1 year after primary CRS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.55), symptoms at recurrence (HR, 3.08), a high grade of disease or adenocarcinoma pathology (HR, 2.94), signet ring cells (HR, 1.91), extraperitoneal metastatic disease (HR, 1.71), or male gender (HR, 1.61) had worse OS. The OS was longer for the patients who had repeat CRS (HR, 0.41). The patients who underwent repeat CCRS had a 3-year OS of 87.5%, a 5-year OS of 78.1%, and a 10-year OS of 67.9%.

Conclusions: Dilemmas persist around the optimal management of patients with recurrence after CRS and HIPEC for appendiceal tumors. Selected patients benefit from repeat CRS, particularly those with favorable tumor biology and focal disease.

MeSH terms

  • Appendiceal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei* / drug therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Surgeons*
  • Survival Rate