Advances and Perspectives in the Application of CRISPR-Cas9 in Livestock

Mol Biotechnol. 2021 Sep;63(9):757-767. doi: 10.1007/s12033-021-00347-2. Epub 2021 May 26.


The sophistication and revolution in genome editing and manipulation have revolutionized livestock by harvesting essential biotechnological products such as drugs, proteins, and serum. It laid down areas for the large production of transgenic food, resistance against certain diseases such as mastitis, and large production of milk and leaner meat. Nowadays, the increasing demand for animal food and protein is fulfilled using genome-editing technologies. The recent genome-editing techniques have overcome the earlier methods of animal reproduction, such as cloning and artificial embryo transfer. The genome of animals now is modified using the recent alteration techniques such as ZFNs, TALENS technique, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system. The literature was illustrated for identifying the researchers to address the advances and perspectives in the application of Cas9 in Livestock. Cas9 is considered better than the previously identified techniques in livestock because of the production of resilience against diseases, improvement of reproductive traits, and animal production to act as a model biomedical research.

Keywords: CRISPR; Genetic manipulation; Livestock.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified*
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems*
  • Cattle
  • Female
  • Gene Editing / methods*
  • Genome
  • Goats / genetics
  • Goats / metabolism
  • Livestock / genetics*
  • Livestock / metabolism
  • Mastitis / genetics
  • Mastitis / prevention & control
  • Meat / analysis
  • Meat / supply & distribution*
  • Milk / chemistry
  • Milk / supply & distribution
  • Organ Transplantation / methods
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Sheep, Domestic / genetics
  • Sheep, Domestic / metabolism
  • Swine / genetics
  • Swine / metabolism
  • Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases / genetics*
  • Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases / metabolism
  • Transplantation, Heterologous


  • Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases