Home Treatment Compared to Initial Hospitalization in Normotensive Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism in the Netherlands: A Cost Analysis

Thromb Haemost. 2022 Mar;122(3):427-433. doi: 10.1055/a-1518-1847. Epub 2021 Jul 6.


Background: Venous thromboembolism constitutes substantial health care costs amounting to approximately 60 million euros per year in the Netherlands. Compared with initial hospitalization, home treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with a cost reduction. An accurate estimation of cost savings per patient treated at home is currently lacking.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare health care utilization and costs during the first 3 months after a PE diagnosis in patients who are treated at home versus those who are initially hospitalized.

Methods: Patient-level data of the YEARS cohort study, including 383 normotensive patients diagnosed with PE, were used to estimate the proportion of patients treated at home, mean hospitalization duration in those who were hospitalized, and rates of PE-related readmissions and complications. To correct for baseline differences within the two groups, regression analyses was performed. The primary outcome was the average total health care costs during a 3-month follow-up period for patients initially treated at home or in hospital.

Results: Mean hospitalization duration for the initial treatment was 0.69 days for those treated initially at home (n = 181) and 4.3 days for those initially treated in hospital (n = 202). Total average costs per hospitalized patient were €3,209 and €1,512 per patient treated at home. The adjusted mean difference was €1,483 (95% confidence interval: €1,181-1,784).

Conclusion: Home treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with acute PE was associated with an estimated net cost reduction of €1,483 per patient. This difference underlines the advantage of triage-based home treatment of these patients.

MeSH terms

  • Cost Savings / methods
  • Duration of Therapy
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs / classification
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data
  • Hemodynamics
  • Home Care Services* / economics
  • Home Care Services* / statistics & numerical data
  • Hospitalization* / economics
  • Hospitalization* / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands / epidemiology
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / etiology
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / therapy
  • Triage* / methods
  • Triage* / standards
  • Venous Thromboembolism / complications*