COVID-19: The Significance of Platelets, Mitochondria, Vitamin D, Serotonin and the Gut Microbiota

Curr Med Chem. 2021;28(37):7634-7657. doi: 10.2174/0929867328666210526100147.


We provide a brief review of the significance of platelets, mitochondria, vitamin D, serotonin, and the gut microbiome in COVID-19. We hypothesize that hyperactive platelets and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as low vitamin D level, gut dysbiosis, and increased serum serotonin produced by enterochromaffin cells, may all represent important aspects in the pathophysiology of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; Platelets; SARS-CoV-2.; gut-brain axis; mitochondria; serotonin; vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Platelets
  • COVID-19*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Serotonin
  • Vitamin D


  • Vitamin D
  • Serotonin