Measurement of Copper ion Extrusion from the Apex of Human Teeth with Single Canals Following of Electrophoresis

Eur Endod J. 2021 May 5. doi: 10.14744/eej.2020.61687. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: Preventing bacterial overgrowth is an essential component of successful root canal treatment. Increasing the penetration of antimicrobial substances into the canal through electrophoresis is one of the possible methods. This study aimed to measure the copper ions extruding from the root apex after using an electrophoresis device (Depotphorese®) in human teeth with single canals.

Methods: In this ex-vivo study, thirty extracted human teeth with single canals were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 as root canal preparation (WP) and group 2 as control (without root canal preparation). Each sample was individually fixed by alginate in a 5 ml sterile Eppendorf tube (microcentrifuge tube), and the root end was in contact with the distilled water solution. Ions derived from calcium hydroxide plus cupper paste (Cupral®) which mobilized via a low current electric field (1.5 mA/min for10 min) by Depotphorese® device. The copper ions in water solution were measured by spectrophotometric and supernatant methods.

Results: Copper ions were extruded from the end of the apex in two groups. However, based on the results of the t-test; copper ion penetration was significantly lower in the control group compared to the WP group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Electrophoresis increased copper extrusion from the apical foramen. Although the root canal preparation increases the copper ion output in an ex-vivo environment, the amount of copper extruded from the root apex end was lower than the toxic dose. It seems that electrophoresis of copper plus calcium hydroxide mixture in endodontic treatments can be a safe procedure.