The pH and Bismuth Oxide Particle Size can Affect Diametral Tensile Strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

Eur Endod J. 2021 Apr 8. doi: 10.14744/eej.2021.27136. Online ahead of print.


Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different pHs (4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, and 9.4) and three different particle sizes of bismuth oxide on diametral tensile strength (DTS) of white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA).

Methods: Thirty cylindrical moulds were divided into six groups of five; WMTA was mixed, placed inside the moulds, and wrapped in pieces of gauze soaked in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) with pH values of either 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4. For bismuth oxide, eighteen similar molds were divided into three groups of six (n=6). Then bismuth oxide with three particle sizes, including fine (120 nm), medium (200 nm), and coarse (10 μm), were provided and added to the Portland cement, which did not have any bismuth oxide to create WMTA. Then WMTA was mixed, placed inside cylindrical molds. After incubation at 95% humidity for 48 hours, samples were subjected to DTS testing by an Instron Universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Then, one sample from each group was subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05).

Results: The comparison of DTS in pH groups were: 8.4>7.4>9.4>6.4>5.4>4.4 (P<0.05); and in bismuth oxide groups were: fine particles > medium particles > coarse particles (P<0.05). Acidic pH, negatively affected the distribution of Ca2+ and Si4+ ions, while bismuth oxide with fine particles enhanced it.

Conclusion: Acidic pH can decline the DTS of MTA significantly. However, reducing the particle size of bismuth oxide can increase the DTS of MTA significantly.