Diabetes mellitus and oral lichen planus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Oral Dis. 2022 Nov;28(8):2100-2109. doi: 10.1111/odi.13927. Epub 2021 Jun 11.


Objective: To undertake a meta-analysis of the association of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) with diabetes, two diseases with an important impact on public health and the economy, but the evidence of which about their association is inconsistent.

Methods: Relevant studies were localized by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Conference Proceedings, and other databases from inception to October 2020, without restrictions. The reference lists of included studies and of related reviews were also inspected. Global pooled odds ratios were calculated, and predefined subgroup analyses were performed. The heterogeneity between studies and publication bias was assessed and sensitivity analysis was carried out.

Results: Thirty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled ORs showed a moderate association between diabetes and OLP [OR: 1.87 (95%CI: 1.57, 2.34)]. The association is limited to studies carried out on adults only [OR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.75, 2.57)] and is observed in all study designs. Globally, the heterogeneity was low to moderate. Studies carried out in European populations show a stronger association of diabetes and OLP than Asiatic studies [OR: 2.49 (95%CI: 1.87, 3.32) and 1.60 (95%CI: 1.25, 2.03), respectively].

Conclusions: Diabetes and OLP are moderately associated. Systematic diagnosis of diabetes in OLP patients could prove useful.

Keywords: Oral lichen planus; diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Lichen Planus, Oral* / complications
  • Odds Ratio