The role of future treatments in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Europe

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2021 Sep;31(5):2179-2188. doi: 10.1177/11206721211018348. Epub 2021 May 29.


Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents have transformed the management of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) over the past two decades. However, as more long-term real-world data become available, it is clear that treatment outcomes are inferior to those reported in large, controlled clinical trials. This is largely driven by undertreatment, that is, not maintaining a consistent injection frequency to achieve sustained VEGF suppression, whether due to patient non-compliance, an important injection burden, or non/incomplete anatomical response. Newer therapeutic advances under evaluation hold promise in achieving more, for less. We review the latest drugs currently in or having successfully finished phase III clinical trials, and determine their potential place in the management of patients with nAMD in Europe.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration; pharmacology; retina; retina – medical therapies; socioeconomics and education in medicine/ophthalmology.

Publication types

  • Editorial
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Macular Degeneration* / drug therapy
  • Ranibizumab / therapeutic use
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Visual Acuity
  • Wet Macular Degeneration* / drug therapy


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Ranibizumab