A number of pathways and factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, prostaglandins, vasculogenesis, Wnt/β-catenin, and transforming growth factor-β have been shown to be important in male androgenetic alopecia. There is limited but increasing evidence of the potential usefulness of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, prostaglandins, and growth factors for treating of androgenetic alopecia. Lifestyle factors and comorbidities including cardiovascular risk factors have been shown to be associated with male androgenetic alopecia. Further study of these pathways, factors, and comorbidities is needed to better understand the pathophysiology, find potentially useful therapeutic targets, and ensure a comprehensive approach to the management of androgenetic alopecia in men.
Keywords: Alopecia; Androgenetic alopecia; Comorbidities; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Pathway; Prostaglandin; Risk factors.
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