Background and objective: Dysbiosis, a loss of balance in the microbiota, is a potential factor of peri-implantitis. However, compositional change of the peri-implant microbiota soon after implant uncovering is still unknown. In this study, bacterial composition in the peri-implant sulcus was examined to understand the establishment of bacterial composition within the peri-implant microbiota during the earliest weeks after implant uncovering.
Methods: Microbiota samples were collected at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 after stage-two surgery. Bacterial DNA was isolated from the samples, and a 16S rRNA gene library was constructed. Sequence reads were obtained using a high-throughput sequencing platform and were taxonomically assigned at the phylum and genus levels.
Results: Alpha diversity indices, which did not include taxonomic information, were at similar levels throughout the four time points. At 1 and 2 weeks, the bacterial composition was similar among patients with the predominance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. However, the composition was diverse at 4 and 6 weeks and significantly dissimilar to the composition at 1 week.
Conclusions: At 1 week, the peri-implant microbiota was already formed with alpha diversity as high as that at the later time points. However, the bacterial composition was not highly dissimilar among patients at 1 week. The composition changed over the passage of several weeks and was specific for each patient.
Keywords: bacterial composition; dental implants; microbiota; peri-implant sulcus.
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.