Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), like other mammalian HSCs, maintain lifelong hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. HSCs remain quiescent in vivo, unlike more differentiated progenitors, and enter the cell cycle rapidly after chemotherapy or irradiation to treat bone marrow injury or in vitro culture. By mimicking the bone marrow microenvironment in the presence of abundant fatty acids, cholesterol, low concentration of cytokines, and hypoxia, human HSCs maintain quiescence in vitro. Here, a detailed protocol for maintaining functional HSCs in the quiescent state in vitro is described. This method will enable studies of the behavior of human HSCs under physiological conditions.