Background: Sex-based differences in clinical outcomes have been previously well described in type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI). However, type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) is more common in contemporary practice, with scarce data regarding sex-based differences of outcomes.
Methods: The Nationwide Readmission Database 2018 was queried for hospitalizations with T2MI as a primary or secondary diagnosis. Complex samples multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to determine the association between T2MI and outcomes (in-hospital mortality, index length of stay [LOS], hospital costs, discharge to nursing facility, and 30-day all-cause readmissions) in females compared to males with T2MI.
Results: A total of 252,641 hospitalizations [119,783 (47.4%) females and 132,858 (52.6%) males] were included in this analysis. Females with T2MI was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.96; P < 0.001), shorter LOS (adjusted parameter estimate [aPE] -0.28; 95% CI -0.38-0.17; P < 0.001), less hospital costs (aPE -1510.70; 95% CI -1916.04-1105.37; P < 0.001), and increased nursing home discharges (aOR 1.08; 95% CI 1.05-1.12; P < 0.001) compared to males with T2MI. Females and males with T2MI had similar rates of 30-day all-cause readmission (aOR 1.00; 95% CI 0.97-1.04; P = 0.841).
Conclusion: Among T2MI hospitalizations, females have lower in-hospital mortality, hospitalization costs, shorter LOS, and increased rates of nursing home discharge compared to males. Although statistically significant, the clinical significance of these small differences are unknown and require future studies.
Keywords: Gender difference; National readmission database; Sex-difference; Type 2 myocardial infarction.
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