The genome sequence of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola)

Hortic Res. 2020 Jun 1;7(1):95. doi: 10.1038/s41438-020-0307-3.


Oxalidaceae is one of the most important plant families in horticulture, and its key commercially relevant genus, Averrhoa, has diverse growth habits and fruit types. Here, we describe the assembly of a high-quality chromosome-scale genome sequence for Averrhoa carambola (star fruit). Ks distribution analysis showed that A. carambola underwent a whole-genome triplication event, i.e., the gamma event shared by most eudicots. Comparisons between A. carambola and other angiosperms also permitted the generation of Oxalidaceae gene annotations. We identified unique gene families and analyzed gene family expansion and contraction. This analysis revealed significant changes in MADS-box gene family content, which might be related to the cauliflory of A. carambola. In addition, we identified and analyzed a total of 204 nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) genes and 58 WRKY genes in the genome, which may be related to the defense response. Our results provide insights into the origin, evolution and diversification of star fruit.