A rare description of pure partial trisomy of 16q12.2q24.3 and review of the literature

Am J Med Genet A. 2021 Oct;185(10):2903-2912. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62368. Epub 2021 Jun 1.


Trisomy 16 is the most common autosomal trisomy in humans, which is almost uniformly embryonic lethal. Partial trisomy 16 including a segment of the long arm of chromosome 16 is occasionally compatible with life and has been associated with severe congenital defects, growth retardation, and early lethality. Segmental trisomy of 16q is usually described concomitantly with partial monosomy of another chromosome, often resulting from a parental balanced translocation. Pure partial chromosome 16q trisomy is exceedingly rare. About nine children with 16q12→qter and 16q13→qter duplication have been reported in the literature, almost all described with monosomy of a second chromosome, and highlighting very few long-term survivors. A single individual with pure partial distal 16q12.1q23.3 duplication has been reported in an infant, underscoring complexities of genetic counseling and management, especially in view of life-limiting congenital anomalies in rare survivors. Here, we present a 12-month-old child with pure 16q12.2q24.3 trisomy, having continued morbidity related to pulmonary hypertension and chronic lung disease. The features of intrauterine growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, congenital heart defect, distal contractures, urogenital abnormalities, and hearing loss support the association with 16q partial trisomy, as in previous studies. This report expands our current understanding related to the survival of infants with large segmental aneusomy of the long arm of chromosome 16.

Keywords: congenital anomalies; rare survivors; trisomy 16q.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics
  • Congenital Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Congenital Abnormalities / pathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / complications
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / genetics
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / pathology
  • Infant
  • Karyotyping
  • Lung Diseases / complications
  • Lung Diseases / genetics
  • Lung Diseases / pathology
  • Male
  • Mosaicism
  • Translocation, Genetic*
  • Trisomy / genetics*
  • Trisomy / pathology

Supplementary concepts

  • Chromosome 16, trisomy
  • Chromosome 16, trisomy 16q