Hepatitis B Vaccination in Senegalese Children: Coverage, Timeliness, and Sociodemographic Determinants of Non-Adherence to Immunisation Schedules (ANRS 12356 AmBASS Survey)

Vaccines (Basel). 2021 May 15;9(5):510. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9050510.


Detailed knowledge about hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination coverage and timeliness for sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. We used data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2018-2019 in the area of Niakhar, Senegal, to estimate coverage, timeliness, and factors associated with non-adherence to the World Health Organisation-recommended vaccination schedules in children born in 2016 (year of the birth dose (BD) introduction in Senegal) and 2017-2018. Vaccination status was assessed from vaccination cards, surveillance data, and healthcare post vaccination records. Among 241 children with available data, for 2016 and 2017-2018, respectively, 31.0% and 66.8% received the BD within 24 h of birth (BD schedule), and 24.3% and 53.7% received the BD plus at least two pentavalent vaccine doses within the recommended timeframes (three-dose schedule). In logistic regression models, home birth, dry season birth, and birth in 2016 were all associated with non-adherence to the recommended BD and three-dose schedules. Living over three kilometres from the nearest healthcare post, being the firstborn, and living in an agriculturally poorer household were only associated with non-adherence to the three-dose schedule. The substantial proportion of children not vaccinated according to recommended schedules highlights the importance of considering vaccination timeliness when evaluating vaccination programme effectiveness. Outreach vaccination activities and incentives to bring children born at home to healthcare facilities within 24 h of birth, must be strengthened to improve timely HBV vaccination.

Keywords: Senegal; birth dose vaccination; hepatitis B vaccine; pentavalent vaccination; vaccination coverage; vaccination timeliness.