Influence of Climate Warming on Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) Phenology in Conditions of Central Europe (Slovakia)

Plants (Basel). 2021 May 20;10(5):1020. doi: 10.3390/plants10051020.

Abstract

The impact of warming on the phenology of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in conditions of central Europe was evaluated at the locality of Dolné Plachtince in the Slovakian wine region. In Welschriesling and Pinot Blanc model varieties, the onset of phenophases as defined in the BBCH scale over the period of 1985 to 2018 was observed. Based on the data obtained, the influence of the average and average maximum temperature and GDD on the onset of phenophases was evaluated. The results observed indicate earlier budburst by five to seven days, earlier beginning of flowering by 7 to 10 days, earlier berry softening by 18 days, and harvest dates advanced by 8 to 10 days on average. In both varieties, the highest influence of the average monthly temperature in March on budburst, the highest influence of the average monthly temperature and the average maximum temperature in May on the beginning of flowering, and the highest statistically significant influence of the average maximum temperature in June on the softening of berries was found. Warming observed in moderate climate conditions of northern wine regions in central Europe (Slovakia) has not yet caused changes in the grapevine phenology stable enough to require serious adaptation measures.

Keywords: climate change; grapevine; phenophase.