The Effect of Menopause Hypoestrogenism on Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells (PDLC) and Stem Cells (PDLCs): A Systematic Review

Healthcare (Basel). 2021 May 12;9(5):572. doi: 10.3390/healthcare9050572.


(1) Background: Menopause is a physiological condition typified by drastic hormonal changes, and the effects of this transition have long-term significant clinical implications on the general health, including symptoms or physical changes. In menopausal women, the periodontium can be affected directly or through neural mechanism by oestrogen (E2) deficiency. The majority of the biological effects of E2 are modulated via both oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) and oestrogen receptor- β (ERβ). There is evidence that hypoestrogenism has a substantial impact on the aetiology, manifestation and severity of periodontitis, via the regulation of the expression of osteoprogesterin and RANKL in human periodontal ligament cells through ERβ. However, the mechanistic understanding of oestrogen in periodontal status has been partially clarified. The aim of this paper was to synopsize the recent scientific evidence concerning the link between the menopause and periodontitis, through the investigation of physio-pathological impact of the oestrogen deficiency on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and PDLSC, as well as the dynamic change of ERα and ERβ. (2) Methods: Search was conducted for significant studies by exploring electronic PubMed and EMBASE databases, and it was independently performed by two researchers. All studies on the impact of oestrogen level on alveolar bone resorption were searched from 2005 to July 2020. Data selection was in concordance with PRISMA guidelines. (3) Results: Eight studies met the criteria and were included in this systematic review. All studies reported that oestrogen deficiency impairs the osteogenic and osteoblastic differentiation of PDL cells and oestrogen affects the bone formation capacity of cells. Seven studies were conducted on animal samples, divided into two groups: the OVX animals and animals who received the sham operation. (4) Conclusions: There is a multitude of data available showing the influence of menopause on periodontal status. However, the evidence of this line to investigation needs more research and could help explain the physiological linkage between menopause state and periodontal disease.

Keywords: Menopause; oestrogen; oestrogen deficiency; oestrogen receptors; periodontal disease; periodontal ligament cells; periodontitis.

Publication types

  • Review