Resveratrol Protects Cardiac Tissue in Experimental Malignant Hypertension Due to Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Apoptotic Properties

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 8;22(9):5006. doi: 10.3390/ijms22095006.

Abstract

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and powerful contributors of cardiovascular diseases. Malignant hypertension is a relatively rare but extremely severe form of hypertension accompanied with heart, brain, and renal impairment. Resveratrol, a recently described grape-derived, polyphenolic antioxidant molecule, has been proposed as an effective agent in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to examine chronic resveratrol administration on blood pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation, with special emphasis on cardiac structure and function in two models of experimental hypertension. The experiments were performed in spontaneously (SHRs) and malignantly hypertensive rats (MHRs). The chronic administration of resveratrol significantly decreased blood pressure in both spontaneously and malignant hypertensive animals. The resveratrol treatment ameliorated morphological changes in the heart tissue. The immunohistochemistry of the heart tissue after resveratrol treatment showed that both TGF-β and Bax were not present in the myocytes of SHRs and were present mainly in the myocytes of MHRs. Resveratrol suppressed lipid peroxidation and significantly improved oxidative status and release of NO. These results suggest that resveratrol prevents hypertrophic and apoptotic consequences induced by high blood pressure with more pronounced effects in malignant hypertension.

Keywords: heart; resveratrol; spontaneously and malignant hypertension.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Apoptosis* / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology
  • Cardiotonic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Heart Ventricles / drug effects
  • Heart Ventricles / pathology
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects
  • Hypertension, Malignant / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension, Malignant / enzymology
  • Hypertension, Malignant / pathology
  • Hypertension, Malignant / physiopathology
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / chemistry
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / pharmacology
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Rats, Inbred SHR
  • Resveratrol / chemistry
  • Resveratrol / pharmacology
  • Resveratrol / therapeutic use*
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Resveratrol
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester