Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome 1 (EDSS1) is characterized by cutaneous syndactyly of the toes and fingers and abnormalities of the hair and teeth, variably associated with nail dystrophy and palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK). EDSS1 is caused by biallelic mutations in the NECTIN4 gene, encoding the adherens junction component nectin-4. Nine EDSS1 cases have been described to date. We report a 5.5-year-old female child affected with EDSS1 due to the novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.1150delC (p.Gln384ArgfsTer7) in the NECTIN4 gene. The patient presents brittle scalp hair, sparse eyebrows and eyelashes, widely spaced conical teeth and dental agenesis, as well as toenail dystrophy and mild PPK. She has minimal proximal syndactyly limited to toes 2-3, which makes the phenotype of our patient peculiar as the overt involvement of both fingers and toes is typical of EDSS1. All previously described mutations are located in the nectin-4 extracellular portion, whereas p.Gln384ArgfsTer7 occurs within the cytoplasmic domain of the protein. This mutation is predicted to affect the interaction with afadin, suggesting that impaired afadin activation is sufficient to determine EDSS1. Our case, which represents the first report of a NECTIN4 mutation with toe-only minimal syndactyly, expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of EDSS1.
Keywords: ectodermal dysplasia; enamel hypoplasia; hypodontia; hypotrichosis; nectin-4; palmoplantar keratoderma; syndactyly; trichoscopy.