Evaluation of the Antinociceptive, Antiallodynic, Antihyperalgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Polyalthic Acid

Molecules. 2021 May 14;26(10):2921. doi: 10.3390/molecules26102921.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are very commonly used, but their adverse effects warrant investigating new therapeutic alternatives. Polyalthic acid, a labdane-type diterpenoid, is known to produce gastroprotection, tracheal smooth muscle relaxation, and antitumoral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive, antiallodynic, antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of polyalthic acid on rats. Moreover, the effectiveness of treating hyperalgesia with a combination of polyalthic acid and naproxen was analyzed, as well as the type of drug-drug interaction involved. Nociception was examined by injecting 1% formalin into the right hind paw and thermal hyperalgesia and inflammation by injecting a 1% carrageenan solution into the left hind paw of rats. Allodynia was assessed on an L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation model. Polyalthic acid generated significant antinociceptive (56-320 mg/kg), antiallodynic (100-562 mg/kg), and antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory (10-178 mg/kg) effects. Antinociception mechanisms were explored by pretreating the rats with naltrexone, ODQ and methiothepin, finding the effect blocked by the former two compounds, which indicates the participation of opioid receptors and guanylate cyclase. An isobolographic analysis suggests synergism between polyalthic acid and naproxen in the combined treatment of hyperalgesia.

Keywords: antiallodynic effect; antinociception; isobologram; naproxen; polyalthic acid; synergism.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Analgesics / pharmacology
  • Analgesics / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Diterpenes / administration & dosage
  • Diterpenes / chemistry
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology
  • Diterpenes / therapeutic use*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Synergism
  • Female
  • Hyperalgesia / drug therapy*
  • Ligation
  • Naproxen / pharmacology
  • Naproxen / therapeutic use
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Spinal Nerves / drug effects
  • Time Factors


  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Diterpenes
  • polyalthic acid
  • Naproxen