Electrochemical Characterization and Detection of Lead in Water Using SPCE Modified with BiONPs/PANI

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 May 14;11(5):1294. doi: 10.3390/nano11051294.


The need for constant assessment of river water qualities for both aquatic and other biological survival has emerged a top priority, due to increasing exposure to industrial pollutants. A disposable screen print carbon electrode was modified with a conductive polymer (PANI) and Zn and/or Cu oxides NPs, obtained through bioreduction in citrus peel extracts (lemon and orange), for ultra-sensitive detection of PB2+, in the Crocodile River water sample. The synthesized materials were characterized with Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SPC-modified electrodes designated as SPCE/LPE/BiONPs/PANI and SPCE/OPE/BiONPs/PANI were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and eventually deployed in the electrochemical detection of PB2+ in water using square wave voltammetry (SWV) technique. The electrochemical responses of the modified electrodes for both CV and EIS in 0.1 M HCl demonstrated enhanced performance relative to the bare SPCE. A detection and quantification limit of 0.494 ppb and 1.647 were obtained at SPCE/LPE/BiONPs/PANI, respectively, while a detection and quantification limit of 2.79 ppb and 8.91 ppb, respectively, were derived from SPCE/OPE/BiONPs/PANI. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for SPC electrode at a 6.04 µM PB2+ analyte concentration was 4.76% and 0.98% at SPCE/LPE/BiONPs/PANI and SPCE/LPE/BiONPs/PANI, respectively. The effect of copper, zinc, iron, cobalt, nickel, and magnesium on the stripping peaks of PB2+ at SPCE/OPE/BiONPs/PANI, showed no significant change except for cobalt, with about 17.67% peak current drop. The sensors were assessed for possible determination of PB2+ in spiked river water samples. The average percentage recovery and RSD calculated were 94.25% and 3.74% (n = 3) at SPCE/LPE/BiONPs/PANI and, 96.70% and 3.71% (n = 3) at SPCE/OPE/BiONPs/PANI, respectively. Therefore, the fabricated sensor material could be used for environmental assessment of this highly toxic heavy metal in the aquatic system.

Keywords: bi-metallic oxide nanoparticles; citrus peels extracts; electrochemical detection; environmental monitoring; green waste management; heavy metals; screen plate electrodes.