Rain Area Detection in South-Western Kenya by Using Multispectral Satellite Data from Meteosat Second Generation

Sensors (Basel). 2021 May 19;21(10):3547. doi: 10.3390/s21103547.


This study presents a rain area detection scheme that uses a gradient based adaptive technique for daytime and nighttime rain area detection and correction from reflectance and infrared (IR) brightness temperatures data of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. First, multiple parametric rain detection models developed from MSG's reflectance and IR data were calibrated and validated with rainfall data from a dense network of rain gauge stations and investigated to determine the best model parameters. The models were based on a conceptual assumption that clouds characterised by the top properties, e.g., high optical thickness and effective radius, have high rain probabilities and intensities. Next, a gradient based adaptive correction technique that relies on rain area-specific parameters was developed to reduce the number and sizes of the detected rain areas. The daytime detection with optical (VIS0.6) and near IR (NIR1.6) reflectance data achieved the best detection skill. For nighttime, detection with thermal IR brightness temperature differences of IR3.9-IR10.8, IR3.9-WV73 and IR108-WV62 showed the best detection skill based on general categorical statistics. Compared to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Integrated Mult-isatellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and the gauge station data from the southwest of Kenya, the model showed good agreement in the spatial dynamics of the detected rain area and rain rate.

Keywords: GPM IMERG; MSG SEVIRI; cloud top properties; conceptual model; parametric model; rainfall detection.