An Outer Membrane Vesicle-Adjuvanted Oral Vaccine Protects Against Lethal, Oral Salmonella Infection

Pathogens. 2021 May 18;10(5):616. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10050616.


Non-typhoidal salmonellosis, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common fecal-oral disease characterized by mild gastrointestinal distress resulting in diarrhea, chills, fever, abdominal cramps, head and body aches, nausea, and vomiting. Increasing incidences of antibiotic resistant invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections makes this a global threat requiring novel treatment strategies including next-generation vaccines. The goal of the current study was to formulate a novel vaccine platform against Salmonella infection that could be delivered orally. To accomplish this, we created a Salmonella-specific vaccine adjuvanted with Burkholderia pseudomallei outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We show that adding OMVs to a heat-killed oral Salmonella vaccine (HKST + OMVs) protects against a lethal, oral challenge with Salmonella. Further, we show that opsonizing anti-Salmonella antibodies are induced in response to immunization and that CD4 T cells and B cells can be induced when OMVs are used as the oral adjuvant. This study represents a novel oral vaccine approach to combatting the increasing problem of invasive Salmonella infections.

Keywords: Salmonella; mucosal immunity; outer membrane vesicles; vaccine.