Pre-Sleep Casein Supplementation, Metabolism, and Appetite: A Systematic Review

Nutrients. 2021 May 30;13(6):1872. doi: 10.3390/nu13061872.


Protein intake is an important factor for augmenting the response to resistance training in healthy individuals. Although food intake can help with anabolism during the day, the period of time during sleep is typically characterized by catabolism and other metabolic shifts. Research on the application of nighttime casein protein supplementation has introduced a new research paradigm related to protein timing. Pre-sleep casein supplementation has been attributed to improved adaptive response by skeletal muscle to resistance training through increases in muscle protein synthesis, muscle mass, and strength. However, it remains unclear what the effect of this nutritional strategy is on non-muscular parameters such as metabolism and appetite in both healthy and unhealthy populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to understand the effects of pre-sleep casein protein on energy expenditure, lipolysis, appetite, and food intake in both healthy and overweight or obese individuals. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted in CINAHL, Cochrane, and SPORTDiscus during March 2021, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. A summary of the main findings shows limited to no effects on metabolism or appetite when ingesting 24-48 g of casein 30 min before sleep, but data are limited, and future research is needed to clarify the relationships observed.

Keywords: appetite; casein; exercise; metabolism; sleep.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Caseins / administration & dosage*
  • Caseins / metabolism*
  • Caseins / pharmacology
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Humans
  • Resistance Training
  • Sleep


  • Caseins