Background: The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D are known to be beneficial in viral infections; it is also known that its deficiency is associated with a prognosis more critical of Coronavirus Disease 2019. This study aimed to determine baseline vitamin D serum concentrations and the effects of its supplementation in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 outpatients.
Methods: 42 outpatients were included, 22 of which received a supplement of 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 for 14 days; the remaining 20 outpatients were designated as a control group. Serum levels of transferrin, ferritin, vitamin D, and D-dimer were measured at baseline in both groups. After 14 days, serum levels of total vitamin D were determined in the supplemented group.
Results: At baseline, only 19% of infected outpatients had vitamin D levels corresponding to sufficiency. All outpatients with vitamin D insufficiency had at least one symptom associated with the disease, while only 75% of patients with symptoms presented sufficiency. On the seventh and fourteenth day of follow-up, the supplemented group presented fewer symptoms with respect to those non-supplemented. A vitamin D3 dose of 10,000 IU/daily for 14 days was sufficient to raise vitamin D serum concentrations.
Conclusions: Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D appear to be linked to the development of symptoms in positive outpatients. Vitamin D supplementation could have significant benefits in the Western Mexican population.
Keywords: COVID-19; Latin America; SARS-CoV-2; biochemical parameters; cholecalciferol; coronavirus; ergocalciferol; supplementation; vitamin D.