Heterogeneous catalysis plays a crucial role in many chemical processes, including advanced organic preparations and the design and synthesis of new organic moieties. Efficient and sustainable catalysts are vital to ecological and fiscal viability. This is why green multicomponent reaction (MCR) approaches have gained prominence. Owing to a broad range of pharmacological applications, pyranopyrazole syntheses (through the one-pot strategy, employing sustainable heterogeneous catalysts) have received immense attention. This review aimed to emphasise recent developments in synthesising nitrogen-based fused heterocyclic ring frameworks, exploring diverse recyclable catalysts. The article focused on the synthetic protocols used between 2010 and 2020 using different single, bi- and tri-metallic materials and nanocomposites as reusable catalysts. This review designated the catalysts' efficacy and activity in product yields, reaction time, and reusability. The MCR green methodologies (in conjunction with recyclable catalyst materials) proved eco-friendly and ideal, with a broad scope that could feasibly lead to advancements in organic synthesis.
Keywords: green protocols; heterogeneous catalysts; multicomponent reactions; one-pot process; pyranopyrazoles.