Camu-Camu Fruit Extract Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses by Regulating NFAT and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways in High Glucose-Induced Human Keratinocytes

Molecules. 2021 May 26;26(11):3174. doi: 10.3390/molecules26113174.


Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh (camu-camu) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. Although camu-camu has received a great deal of attention for its potential pharmacological activities, there is little information on the anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of camu-camu fruit in skin diseases. In the present study, we investigated the preventative effect of 70% ethanol camu-camu fruit extract against high glucose-induced human keratinocytes. High glucose-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was inhibited by camu-camu fruit treatment. In response to ROS reduction, camu-camu fruit modulated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling pathways related to inflammation by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, camu-camu fruit treatment activated the expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequently increased the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) expression to protect keratinocytes against high-glucose-induced oxidative stress. These results indicate that camu-camu fruit is a promising material for preventing oxidative stress and skin inflammation induced by high glucose level.

Keywords: NFAT; Nrf2; camu-camu fruit; high glucose; inflammation; keratinocytes; oxidative stress.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry
  • Cell Survival
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Keratinocytes / cytology
  • Keratinocytes / metabolism*
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Myrtaceae
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) / metabolism
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism*
  • NFATC Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Picrates / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • NFATC Transcription Factors
  • NFATC2 protein, human
  • NFE2L2 protein, human
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
  • NQO1 protein, human
  • Glucose