AR-V7 in Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Strategy beyond Redemption

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 24;22(11):5515. doi: 10.3390/ijms22115515.


Metastatic prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males and the fifth cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Despite the major progress in this field, leading to the approval of novel anti-androgens, the prognosis is still poor. A significant number of patients acquire an androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), which is constitutively activated and lacks the ligand-binding domain (LBD) while maintaining the nuclear localization signal and DNA-binding domain (DBD). This conformational change, even in the absence of the ligand, allows its retention within the nucleus, where it acts as a transcription factor repressing crucial tumor suppressor genes. AR-V7 is an important oncogenic driver and plays a role as an early diagnostic and prognostic marker, as well as a therapeutic target for antagonists such as niclosamide and TAS3681. Anti-AR-V7 drugs have shown promise in recent clinical investigations on this subset of patients. This mini-review focuses on the relevance of AR-V7 in the clinical manifestations of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and summarizes redemptive therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: AR-V7 antagonists; androgen receptor; androgen receptor splice variant 7; castration-resistant prostate cancer; niclosamide.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alternative Splicing
  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Niclosamide / pharmacology
  • Niclosamide / therapeutic use
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics*


  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Niclosamide