The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and identification of transcription factors for cardiac reprogramming have raised hope to cure heart disease, the leading cause of death in the world. Our knowledge in heart development and molecular barriers of cardiac reprogramming is advancing, but many hurdles are yet to be overcome for clinical translation. Importantly, we lack a full understanding of molecular mechanisms governing cell fate conversion toward cardiomyocytes. In this review, we will discuss the role of metabolism in directed differentiation versus trans-differentiation of cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes exhibit a unique metabolic feature distinct from PSCs and cardiac fibroblasts, and there are multiple overlapping molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic reprogramming during cardiomyogenesis. We will discuss key metabolic changes occurring during cardiomyocytes differentiation from PSCs and cardiac fibroblasts, and the potential role of metabolic reprogramming in the enhancement strategies for cardiomyogenesis. Only when such details are discovered will more effective strategies to enhance the de novo production of cardiomyocytes be possible.
Keywords: Cardiomyocytes; Differentiation; Fibroblasts; IPSCs; Metabolism; Reprogramming.
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