Perivascular niches are specialized microenvironments where stromal and immune cells interact with vasculature to monitor tissue status. Adventitial perivascular niches surround larger blood vessels and other boundary sites, supporting collections of immune cells, stromal cells, lymphatics, and neurons. Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs), a subtype of mesenchymal stromal cell, are the dominant constituents in adventitial spaces, regulating vascular integrity while organizing the accumulation and activation of a variety of interacting immune cells. In contrast, pericytes are stromal mural cells that support microvascular capillaries and surround organ-specific parenchymal cells. Here, we outline the unique immune and non-immune composition of perivascular tissue immune niches, with an emphasis on the heterogeneity and immunoregulatory functions of AFs and pericytes across diverse organs. We will discuss how perivascular stromal cells contribute to the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and integrate immunological signals to impact tissue health and disease.
Keywords: adventitial fibroblasts; mesenchymal stromal cells; pericytes; stromal niches; tissue immune niches.
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