Buckwheat is one of the five main allergenic foods (eggs, milk, wheat, buckwheat, and peanuts). Oleosin is an important type of allergen in some allergic foods. However, although most diagnostic nut and seed extracts are defatted, some patients with food allergies may have false negative diagnostic results of oleosin in vitro. Recently, we found that the serum of buckwheat allergic patients responded strongly to an 18 kDa protein. Mass spectrometry analysis showed it is the oleosin protein family. We further purified and evaluated the allergenicity of this buckwheat oleosin-type allergen, which is involved in the formation of buckwheat oil bodies. The tartary buckwheat oleosin allergen was named Fag t 6, according to the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee criteria. The DNA sequence of tartary buckwheat oleosin was cloned. Dot blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed half of the 20 buckwheat allergic patients' serum had strong reactivity with purified buckwheat Fag t 6. Circular dichroism experiment analysis of its thermal stability showed a Tm of 64.65 ± 0.65 °C. A buckwheat allergy showed possible cross-reaction with a wheat allergy. In summary, this study not only increases our understanding of buckwheat allergies and oil-soluble allergens in general, it may also be used to improve diagnostic tests for buckwheat allergies in the future.
Keywords: Fag t 6; allergen; buckwheat; cross-allergic reaction; oleosin.