Compartmentalization is a defining characteristic of eukaryotic cells, and partitions distinct biochemical processes into discrete subcellular locations. Microscopy1 and biochemical fractionation coupled with mass spectrometry2-4 have defined the proteomes of a variety of different organelles, but many intracellular compartments have remained refractory to such approaches. Proximity-dependent biotinylation techniques such as BioID provide an alternative approach to define the composition of cellular compartments in living cells5-7. Here we present a BioID-based map of a human cell on the basis of 192 subcellular markers, and define the intracellular locations of 4,145 unique proteins in HEK293 cells. Our localization predictions exceed the specificity of previous approaches, and enabled the discovery of proteins at the interface between the mitochondrial outer membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum that are crucial for mitochondrial homeostasis. On the basis of this dataset, we created humancellmap.org as a community resource that provides online tools for localization analysis of user BioID data, and demonstrate how this resource can be used to understand BioID results better.