Importance: Most women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant undergo premature menopause with potential short- and long-term morbidity due to the current method of ovarian carcinoma prevention: risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Because the fallopian tubes play a key role in ovarian cancer pathogenesis, salpingectomy with delayed oophorectomy may be a novel risk-reducing strategy with benefits of delaying menopause.
Objective: To compare menopause-related quality of life after risk-reducing salpingectomy (RRS) with delayed oophorectomy with RRSO in carriers of the BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant.
Design, setting, and participants: A multicenter nonrandomized controlled preference trial (TUBA study), with patient recruitment between January 16, 2015, and November 7, 2019, and follow-up at 3 and 12 months after surgery was conducted in all Dutch university hospitals and a few large general hospitals. In the Netherlands, RRSO is predominantly performed in these hospitals. Patients at the clinical genetics or gynecology department between the ages of 25 and 40 years (BRCA1) or 25 to 45 years (BRCA2) who were premenopausal, had completed childbearing, and were undergoing no current treatment for cancer were eligible.
Interventions: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy at currently recommended age or RRS after completed childbearing with delayed oophorectomy. After RRSO was performed, hormone replacement therapy was recommended for women without contraindications.
Main outcomes and measures: Menopause-related quality of life as assessed by the Greene Climacteric Scale, with a higher scale sum (range, 0-63) representing more climacteric symptoms. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, sexual functioning and distress, cancer worry, decisional regret, and surgical outcomes.
Results: A total of 577 women (mean [SD] age, 37.2 [3.5] years) were enrolled: 297 (51.5%) were pathogenic BRCA1 variant carriers and 280 (48.5%) were BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. At the time of analysis, 394 patients had undergone RRS and 154 had undergone RRSO. Without hormone replacement therapy, the adjusted mean increase from the baseline score on the Greene Climacteric Scale was 6.7 (95% CI, 5.0-8.4; P < .001) points higher during 1 year after RRSO than after RRS. After RRSO with hormone replacement therapy, the difference was 3.6 points (95% CI, 2.3-4.8; P < .001) compared with RRS.
Conclusions and relevance: Results of this nonrandomized controlled trial suggest that patients have better menopause-related quality of life after RRS than after RRSO, regardless of hormone replacement therapy. An international follow-up study is currently evaluating the oncologic safety of this therapy.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02321228.