Ethnopharmacological relevance: Shenzhiling oral liquid (SZL), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound, is firstly approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). SZL is composed of ten Chinese herbs, and the precise therapy mechanism of its action to AD is far from fully understood.
Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to observe whether SZL is an effective therapy for amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes impairments. Notably, the primary aim was to elucidate whether and through what underlying mechanism SZL protects the myelin sheath through the PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in Aβ42-induced OLN-93 oligodendrocytes in vitro.
Materials and methods: APP/PS1 mice were treated with SZL or donepezil continuously for three months, and Aβ42-induced oligodendrocyte OLN-93 cells mimicking AD pathogenesis of myelin sheath impairments were incubated with SZL-containing serum or with donepezil. LC-MS/MS was used to analysis the active components of SZL and SZL-containing serum. The Y maze test was administered after 3 months of treatment, and the hippocampal tissues of the APP/PS1 mice were then harvested for observation of myelin sheath and oligodendrocyte morphology. Cell viability and toxicity were assessed using CCK-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays, and flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis. The expression of the myelin proteins MBP, PLP, and MAG and that of Aβ42 and Aβ40 in the hippocampi of APP/PS1 mice were examined after SZL treatment. Simultaneously, the expression of p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt, Akt, p-mTOR, and mTOR were also examined. The expression of proteins, including CNPase, Olig2, NKX2.2, MBP, PLP, MAG, MOG, p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt, Akt, p-mTOR, and mTOR, was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and the corresponding gene expression was evaluated by qPCR in Aβ42-induced OLN-93 oligodendrocytes.
Results: LC-MS/MS detected a total of 126 active compounds in SZL-containing serum, including terpenoids, flavones, phenols, phenylpropanoids and phenolic acids. SZL treatment significantly improved memory and cognition in APP/PS1 mice and decreased the G-ratio of myelin sheath, alleviated myelin sheath and oligodendrocyte impairments by decreasing Aβ42 and Aβ40 accumulation and increasing the expression of myelin proteins MBP, PLP, MAG, and PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway associated protein in the hippocampi of APP/PS1 mice. SZL-containing serum also significantly reversed the OLN-93 cell injury induced by Aβ42 by increasing cell viability and enhanced the expression of MBP, PLP, MAG, and MOG. Meanwhile, SZL-containing serum facilitated the maturation and differentiation of oligodendrocytes in Aβ42-induced OLN-93 cells by heightening the expression of CNPase, Olig2 and NKX2.2. SZL-containing serum treatment also fostered the expression of p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt, Akt, p-mTOR, and mTOR, indicating an activating PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in OLN-93 cells. Furthermore, the effects of SZL on myelin proteins, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were clearly inhibited by LY294002 and/or rapamycin, antagonists of PI3K and m-TOR, respectively.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that SZL exhibits a neuroprotective effect on the myelin sheath by promoting the expression of myelin proteins during AD, and its mechanism of action is closely related to the activation of the PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD); Amyloid-beta (Aβ); Myelin sheath; Oligodendrocyte OLN-93 cell line; PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway; Shenzhiling oral liquid (SZL).
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