Intracardiac echocardiography for guidance of transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion: An expert consensus document

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2021 Oct;98(4):815-825. doi: 10.1002/ccd.29791. Epub 2021 Jun 4.


Transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is an increasingly used alternative to oral anticoagulation in selected patients with atrial fibrillation. Intraprocedural imaging is a crucial for a successful intervention, with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the current gold standard. Since some important limitations may affect TEE use, intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is increasingly used as an alternative to TEE for guiding LAAO. The lack of a standardized imaging protocol has slowed the adoption of ICE into clinical practice. On the basis of current research and expert consensus, this paper provides a protocol for ICE support of left atrial appendage occlusion.

Keywords: ICE; imaging; left atrial appendage.

MeSH terms

  • Atrial Appendage* / diagnostic imaging
  • Atrial Fibrillation* / complications
  • Atrial Fibrillation* / diagnostic imaging
  • Atrial Fibrillation* / therapy
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Consensus
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Treatment Outcome