Transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is an increasingly used alternative to oral anticoagulation in selected patients with atrial fibrillation. Intraprocedural imaging is a crucial for a successful intervention, with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the current gold standard. Since some important limitations may affect TEE use, intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is increasingly used as an alternative to TEE for guiding LAAO. The lack of a standardized imaging protocol has slowed the adoption of ICE into clinical practice. On the basis of current research and expert consensus, this paper provides a protocol for ICE support of left atrial appendage occlusion.
Keywords: ICE; imaging; left atrial appendage.
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