Efficacy of Rose Bengal and Curcumin mediated photodynamic therapy for the treatment of denture stomatitis in patients with habitual cigarette smoking: A randomized controlled clinical trial

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2021 Sep:35:102380. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102380. Epub 2021 Jun 1.


Background: Cigarette smoking in conjugation with bad oral hygiene is considered a typical predisposing factor for many oral diseases including denture stomatitis. This study investigated the effect of Rose Bengal (RB)-and Curcumin (CUR)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) in comparison with nystatin therapy in the intervention of denture stomatitis in cigarette smokers.

Methods: Overall, 45 habitual cigarette smokers aged ~58 years having denture stomatitis were categorized into three groups: Group-I - RB-mediated PDT, Group-II - CUR-mediated PDT, and Group-III - Nystatin therapy. The primary outcome of the interest was: counts of Candida colony from denture surface and palatal mucosa, calculated as CFU/mL, whereas the prevalence of Candida species determined in 3 research groups comprised the secondary outcome. Oral swab specimens were gathered from the denture surfaces and palatal mucosa. All clinical assessments were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks.

Results: C. albicans was the most prevalent yeast identified on both denture surfaces and palatal mucosa, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. A considerable decrease in the CFU/mL scores were observed in Group-I and Group-II at the end of the interventions and on the 12-week follow-up (p<0.05). Group-I, II, and III demonstrated clinical efficacy rates of 53%, 51%, and 49%, respectively.

Conclusion: CUR-and RB-mediated PDT was found to be as effective as topical Nystatin therapy for the intervention of denture stomatitis among cigarette smokers.

Keywords: Candida; Curcumin; Nystatin; Photodynamic therapy; Rose Bengal.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Candida albicans
  • Cigarette Smoking*
  • Curcumin* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Photochemotherapy* / methods
  • Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • Rose Bengal
  • Stomatitis, Denture* / drug therapy
  • Stomatitis, Denture* / epidemiology


  • Photosensitizing Agents
  • Rose Bengal
  • Curcumin