Association of Primary and Behavioral Health Integrated Care Upon Pediatric Mental Disorder Treatment

Acad Pediatr. Sep-Oct 2021;21(7):1187-1194. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.05.021. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether linkage with mental health (MH) treatment differed across 3 different integrated care arrangements (ICAs), following incident attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnoses given by primary care providers (PCPs) in the pediatric setting.

Methods: Using claims linking with multiple public data sources, we examined the treatment initiation among children receiving an incident diagnosis of ADHD or MDD from PCPs working in practices with various ICAs. ICAs were categorized as PCP practiced alone (non-co-located), PCP practiced with specialist outside the practice but co-located at the practice site (co-located), and employed specialists who were co-located (co-located and co-affiliated).

Results: A total of 4203 incident ADHD and 298 incident MDD cases diagnosed by PCPs were identified, of which 3123 (74%) with ADHD and 200 (67%) with MDD received treatment within 90 days since the diagnosis. Children diagnosed with ADHD by co-located and co-affiliated PCPs were twice as likely to receive treatment as those diagnosed by non-co-located PCPs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.78). Of those treated, children diagnosed by co-located and co-affiliated PCPs were 2 times more likely to receive guideline recommended psychotherapy (OR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These patients were also more likely to be treated at the diagnosing site versus elsewhere. Similar beneficial effects were not observed in those first diagnosed by co-located but non-affiliated PCPs.

Conclusions: Service co-location between co-affiliated PCPs and MH specialists was associated with significant higher ADHD treatment rate and the receipt of guideline-recommended psychotherapy.

Keywords: Medicaid; integrated care arrangements; pediatric mental disorder; treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity* / therapy
  • Child
  • Delivery of Health Care, Integrated*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Psychiatry*
  • Psychotic Disorders*