Pulmonary Manifestations of GATA2 Deficiency

Chest. 2021 Oct;160(4):1350-1359. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.05.046. Epub 2021 Jun 3.


Background: GATA2 deficiency is a genetic disorder of hematopoiesis, lymphatics, and immunity caused by autosomal dominant or sporadic mutations in GATA2. The disease has a broad phenotype encompassing immunodeficiency, myelodysplasia, leukemia, and vascular or lymphatic dysfunction as well as prominent pulmonary manifestations.

Research question: What are the pulmonary manifestations of GATA2 deficiency?

Study design and methods: A retrospective review was conducted of clinical medical records, diagnostic imaging, pulmonary pathologic specimens, and tests of pulmonary function.

Results: Of 124 patients (95 probands and 29 ascertained), the lung was affected in 56%. In addition to chronic infections, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (11 probands) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (nine probands) were present. Thoracic CT imaging found small nodules in 54% (54 probands and 12 relatives), reticular infiltrates in 40% (45 probands and four relatives), paraseptal emphysema in 25% (30 probands and one relative), ground-glass opacities in 35% (41 probands and two relatives), consolidation in 21% (23 probands and two relatives), and a typical crazy-paving pattern in 7% (eight probands and no relatives). Nontuberculous mycobacteria were the most frequent organisms associated with chronic infection. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully reversed myelodysplasia and immune deficiency and also improved pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in most patients.

Interpretation: GATA2 deficiency has prominent pulmonary manifestations. These clinical observations confirm the essential role of hematopoietic cells in many aspects of pulmonary function, including infections, alveolar proteinosis, and pulmonary hypertension, many of which precede the formal diagnosis, and many of which respond to stem cell transplantation.

Keywords: GATA2 deficiency; pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; pulmonary hypertension.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Female
  • GATA2 Deficiency / diagnostic imaging
  • GATA2 Deficiency / physiopathology*
  • GATA2 Deficiency / therapy
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Humans
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / diagnostic imaging
  • Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / physiopathology*
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis / physiopathology*
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / physiopathology*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / physiopathology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Young Adult