Precision Medicine in Neonates: A Tailored Approach to Neonatal Brain Injury

Front Pediatr. 2021 May 19:9:634092. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.634092. eCollection 2021.


Despite advances in neonatal care to prevent neonatal brain injury and neurodevelopmental impairment, predicting long-term outcome in neonates at risk for brain injury remains difficult. Early prognosis is currently based on cranial ultrasound (CUS), MRI, EEG, NIRS, and/or general movements assessed at specific ages, and predicting outcome in an individual (precision medicine) is not yet possible. New algorithms based on large databases and machine learning applied to clinical, neuromonitoring, and neuroimaging data and genetic analysis and assays measuring multiple biomarkers (omics) can fulfill the needs of modern neonatology. A synergy of all these techniques and the use of automatic quantitative analysis might give clinicians the possibility to provide patient-targeted decision-making for individualized diagnosis, therapy, and outcome prediction. This review will first focus on common neonatal neurological diseases, associated risk factors, and most common treatments. After that, we will discuss how precision medicine and machine learning (ML) approaches could change the future of prediction and prognosis in this field.

Keywords: artificial intelligence; brain injury; intraventricular hemorrhage; newborn; personalized medicine; precision medicine; preterm; stroke.

Publication types

  • Review