Background: Comorbidities including ischemic heart disease (IHD) worsen outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infections. High lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations are a strong risk factor for IHD and possibly for thromboembolic events. We therefore evaluated whether SARS-CoV-2 infections modify the risk of high Lp(a) concentrations for IHD or thromboembolic events during the first 8.5 months follow-up of the pandemic.
Method: Cohort study using data from the UK Biobank during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Baseline Lp(a) was compared between SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and the population controls.
Results: SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had Lp(a) concentrations similar to the population controls. The risk for IHD increased with higher Lp(a) concentrations in both, the population controls (n = 435,104) and SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (n = 6937). The causality of the findings was supported by a genetic risk score for Lp(a). A SARS-CoV-2 infection modified the association with a steeper increase in risk for infected patients (interaction p-value = 0.03). Although SARS-CoV-2 positive patients had a five-times higher frequency of thromboembolic events compared to the population controls (1.53% vs. 0.31%), the risk was not influenced by Lp(a).
Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infections enforce the association between high Lp(a) and IHD but the risk for thromboembolic events is not influenced by Lp(a).
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; ischemic heart disease; lipoprotein(a); thromboembolic events.
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.