Assessment of Effectiveness of 1 Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 Infection 13 to 24 Days After Immunization

JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2115985. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.15985.

Abstract

Importance: The BNT162b2 vaccine showed high efficacy against COVID-19 in a phase III randomized clinical trial. A vaccine effectiveness evaluation in a real-world setting is needed.

Objective: To assess the short-term effectiveness of the first dose of the BNT162b2-vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection 13 to 24 days after immunization in a real-world setting.

Design, setting, and participants: This comparative effectiveness study used data from a 2.6 million-member state-mandated health care system in Israel. Participants included all individuals aged 16 years and older who received 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine between December 19, 2020, and January 15, 2021. Data were analyzed in March 2021.

Exposure: Receipt of 1 dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine.

Main outcomes and measures: Information was collected regarding medical history and positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test and COVID-19 symptoms from 1 day after first vaccine to January 17, 2021. Daily and cumulative infection rates in days 13 to 24 were compared with days 1 to 12 after the first dose using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear models.

Results: Data for 503 875 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [14.7] years; 263 228 [52.4%] women) were analyzed, of whom 351 897 had follow-up data for days 13 to 24. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 2484 individuals (0.57%) during days 1 through 12 and 614 individuals (0.27%) in days 13 through 24. The weighted mean (SE) daily incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in days 1 through 12 was 43.41 (12.07) infections per 100 000 population and 21.08 (6.16) infections per 100 000 population in days 13 through 24, a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 51.4% (95% CI, 16.3%-71.8%). The decrease in incidence was evident from day 18 after the first dose. Similar RRRs were calculated in individuals aged 60 years or older (44.5%; 95% CI, 4.1%-67.9%), those younger than 60 years (50.2%; 95% CI, 14.1%-71.2%), women (50.0%; 95% CI, 13.5%-71.0%), and men (52.1%; 95% CI, 17.3%-72.2%). Findings were similar in subpopulations (eg, ultraorthodox Jewish: RRR, 53.5% [95% CI, 19.2%-73.2%]) and patients with various comorbidities (eg, cardiovascular diseases: RRR, 47.2% [95% CI, 7.8%-69.8%]). Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 was 54.4% (95% CI, 21.4%-73.6%).

Conclusions and relevance: In this comparative effectiveness study of a single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, results were comparable to that of the phase III randomized clinical trial.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines*
  • Comparative Effectiveness Research
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Incidence
  • Israel
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination*

Substances

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • BNT162 vaccine