Breast Cancer Risk and Screening in Transgender Persons: A Call for Inclusive Care

Ann Surg Oncol. 2022 Apr;29(4):2176-2180. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-10217-5. Epub 2021 Jun 7.


The Society of Surgical Oncology is committed to reducing health disparities adversely affecting sexual and gender minorities. Transgender persons represent a socially disadvantaged group who frequently experience discrimination and receive disparate care, resulting in suboptimal cancer outcomes. The rate of breast cancer development in transgender individuals differs from rates observed in their cisgender counterparts, however there is little evidence to quantify these differences and guide evidence-based screening and prevention. There is no consensus for breast cancer screening guidelines in transgender patients. In this review, we discuss barriers to equitable breast cancer care, risk factors for breast cancer development, and existing data to support breast cancer screening in transgender men and women.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Breast Neoplasms* / prevention & control
  • Early Detection of Cancer / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Transgender Persons*
  • Vulnerable Populations