The 2021 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology contains 14 invited reviews on current research areas of particular importance in pathology. The subjects included here reflect the broad range of interests covered by the journal, including both basic and applied research fields but always with the aim of improving our understanding of human disease. This year, our reviews encompass the huge impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the development and application of biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors, recent advances in multiplexing antigen/nucleic acid detection in situ, the use of genomics to aid drug discovery, organoid methodologies in research, the microbiome in cancer, the role of macrophage-stroma interactions in fibrosis, and TGF-β as a driver of fibrosis in multiple pathologies. Other reviews revisit the p53 field and its lack of clinical impact to date, dissect the genetics of mitochondrial diseases, summarise the cells of origin and genetics of sarcomagenesis, provide new data on the role of TRIM28 in tumour predisposition, review our current understanding of cancer stem cell niches, and the function and regulation of p63. The reviews are authored by experts in their field from academia and industry, and provide comprehensive updates of the chosen areas, in which there has been considerable recent progress. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: 3D culture; CSC niche; DNA damage; GWAS; HDAC inhibitors; IL-33; KAP1; MAPK; MDM2; PD-1; PD-L1; Smad; TGF-β; TIF1beta; TRIM28; Wilms' tumour; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); antifibrotic; atezolizumab; autoimmunity; bone; cancer; cancer predisposition; cancer progression; cancer stem cells (CSCs); cell of origin; cellular crosstalk; chromatin modification; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); damage-associated molecular patterns; diffuse alveolar damage (DAD); direct-to-consumer; drug development; drug resistance; dysbiosis; embryonic kidney development; endothelial to mesenchymal transition (endMT); epigenetics; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); extracellular matrix; gene enhancers; genetic diagnosis; genetics; genomics; human genetics; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; immuno-oncology; immunopathology; immunotherapy; inflammation; intratumoral microbiota; ipilimumab; local microbiota; mTOR; macrophages; metabolomics; microbial metabolites; microbial toxins; microbiome; microstructure; migration; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial pathology; mouse model; multiplex immunohistochemistry; multiplex in situ hybridization; nephroblastoma; nivolumab; oncogene; organoids; p53; p63; pathology; pathophysiology; pembrolizumab; phagocytosis; polarization; polygenic risk score; precision medicine; profibrotic; proteomics; sarcoma; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); shear stress; single cell transcriptomes; soft tissue; spatial transcriptomics; squamous cell cancer; stem cells; stiffness; stretch; therapeutic discovery; therapy; treatment; tumorigenesis; tumour microenvironment; tumour suppressor; tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes.
© 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.