Contemporary Outcomes in Tetralogy of Fallot With Absent Pulmonary Valve After Fetal Diagnosis

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Jun 15;10(12):e019713. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019713. Epub 2021 Jun 8.


Background Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve is associated with high mortality, but it remains difficult to predict outcomes prenatally. We aimed to identify risk factors for mortality in a large multicenter cohort. Methods and Results Fetal echocardiograms and clinical data from 19 centers over a 10-year period were collected. Primary outcome measures included fetal demise and overall mortality. Of 100 fetuses, pregnancy termination/postnatal nonintervention was elected in 22. Of 78 with intention to treat, 7 (9%) died in utero and 21 (27%) died postnatally. With median follow-up of 32.9 months, no deaths occurred after 13 months. Of 80 fetuses with genetic testing, 46% had chromosomal abnormalities, with 22q11.2 deletion in 35%. On last fetal echocardiogram, at a median of 34.6 weeks, left ventricular dysfunction independently predicted fetal demise (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% CI 1.3, 43.0; P=0.026). Right ventricular dysfunction independently predicted overall mortality in multivariate analysis (OR, 7.9; 95% CI 2.1-30.0; P=0.002). Earlier gestational age at delivery, mediastinal shift, left ventricular/right ventricular dilation, left ventricular dysfunction, tricuspid regurgitation, and Doppler abnormalities were associated with fetal and postnatal mortality, although few tended to progress throughout gestation on serial evaluation. Pulmonary artery diameters did not correlate with outcomes. Conclusions Perinatal mortality in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve remains high, with overall survival of 64% in fetuses with intention to treat. Right ventricular dysfunction independently predicts overall mortality. Left ventricular dysfunction predicts fetal mortality and may influence prenatal management and delivery planning. Mediastinal shift may reflect secondary effects of airway obstruction and abnormal lung development and is associated with increased mortality.

Keywords: congenital heart disease; fetal cardiology; fetal echocardiography; prenatal diagnosis; tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Canada
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Color*
  • Fetal Death / etiology*
  • Fetal Heart / abnormalities
  • Fetal Heart / diagnostic imaging*
  • Fetal Heart / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary Valve / abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Valve / diagnostic imaging*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / complications
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / diagnostic imaging*
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / mortality
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / physiopathology
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal*
  • United States
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / etiology
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / mortality
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / physiopathology
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Right / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Right / etiology
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Right / mortality
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Right / physiopathology