Ornithine-containing lipids purified by thin-layer chromatography were found to represent 2-15% of the total extractable cellular lipids in two or three strains each of four Pseudomonas species: P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. stutzeri and P. cepacia. The structures of the ornithine-containing lipids were elucidated by chemical analysis, thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (electron impact or secondary ion) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. At least six molecular species of ornithine-containing lipids were present in common in all of the preparations of the four Pseudomonas species. The structure which was the most abundantly in P. fluorescens (about 60% of the total amount of the ornithine-containing lipid) was 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid amide-linked to ornithine and esterified to hexadecanoic acid. In addition to this structure, 3-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid amide-linked to ornithine and esterified to hexadecanoic acid was a dominant structure in the ornithine-containing lipids of P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri or P. cepacia. In P. cepacia, another ornithine-containing lipids with a terminal polar fatty acid, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid amide-linked to ornithine and esterified to 2-hydroxynonadecacyclopropanoic acid or 2-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid, was found; its content, which represented 8-11% of the total extractable cellular lipids, was higher than that of the ornithine-containing lipids with a terminal nonpolar fatty acid. These ornithine-containing lipids exhibited hemagglutinating activity. Additionally, it was very interesting that hydroxy fatty acids included in the ornithine-containing lipids were not found in the phospholipids which represented more than 80% of the total extractable cellular lipids.