Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived pancreatic β cells are an attractive cell source for treating diabetes. However, current derivation methods remain inefficient, heterogeneous, and cell line dependent. To address these issues, we first devised a strategy to efficiently cluster hPSC-derived pancreatic progenitors into 3D structures. Through a systematic study, we discovered 10 chemicals that not only retain the pancreatic progenitors in 3D clusters but also enhance their potentiality towards NKX6.1+/INS+ β cells. We further systematically screened signaling pathway modulators in the three steps from pancreatic progenitors toward β cells. The implementation of all these strategies and chemical combinations resulted in generating β cells from different sources of hPSCs with high efficiency. The derived β cells are functional and can reverse hyperglycemia in mice within two weeks. Our protocol provides a robust platform for studying human β cells and developing hPSC-derived β cells for cell replacement therapy.