GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY INCIDENCE AND PROGRESSION AFTER INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AGENTS FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A Meta-Analysis

Retina. 2021 Dec 1;41(12):2424-2435. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003207.

Abstract

Purpose: Geographic atrophy (GA) is a complication of advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration that can lead to permanent vision loss. We sought to estimate the incidence and progression of GA after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from inception to May 2020. Included studies reported on the progression or development of GA in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration after antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

Results: Thirty-one articles and 4,609 study eyes (4,501 patients) were included. Eyes received a mean of 17.7 injections over 35.2 months. The prevalence of GA at baseline was 9.7%. The pooled incidence of GA was 30.5% at the end of follow-up. There was a positive, moderate linear correlation between the mean total number of injections and GA incidence at the final follow-up (R2 = 0.30; P = 0.01). Monthly treatment was associated with a significantly higher risk for GA development relative to pro re nata (relative risk = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = [1.21-1.61], P < 0.001). Risk factors for GA development included GA in the fellow eye, retinal angiomatous proliferation, drusen, and reticular pseudodrusen.

Conclusion: We found an association between the frequency and number of treatments with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents and the development of GA in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Future studies should clarify risk factors, population characteristics, and relative contributions of treatment and disease progression on GA development in this context.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Bevacizumab / therapeutic use
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Geographic Atrophy / diagnosis
  • Geographic Atrophy / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Ranibizumab / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*

Substances

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Bevacizumab
  • Ranibizumab